The Czech Athletics Association was founded in 1993, after the collapse of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic. However, the history of organized athletics in that territory is much older and dates back to 1897, when the Czech Amateur Athletics Union was founded during the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
For more than a century, Czech athletes have been writing history. They have gathered olympic laurels, they have become world and european champions, they have exceeded the limits of human possibilities. Many of them still hold world records. Czechoslovakia and then the Czech Republic won a total of 14 gold medals at the Olympics, including four by Emil Zátopek, two by Jan Železný and Barbora Špotáková and one gold each by Zátopková, Fikotová, Rezková, Cerb, Zmlík and Šebrle. Czech athletes were not allowed to take part in the 1984 Olympic Games, when they were in excellent shape, which they had previously demonstrated at the 1983 World Championships in Helsinki. Since then, Dvořák has become world champion three times in decathlon, twice Kratochvílová in 400 m and 800 m, Železný twice in javelin, once Fibingerová in shot put, Bugár in discus, Kašpárková in triple jump, Formanová in 800 m , Špotáková and Veselý at javelin, Šebrle at the decathlon, Hejnová at 400 m hurdle.
At the 9th edition of the European Team Championships, the Czech Republic played in the Super League, but relegated, so on Cluj Arena it will compete in First League.